Organic farming is the modern method of indigenous farming, where farming keeps the balance between nature and the environment. In this, nutrients are given to the plants by not using chemical fertilizers, pesticides, dung manure, compost, bacterial manure, crop residue, crop chak, and minerals available in nature like rock phosphate, gypsum, etc. The crop is protected from harmful pests and diseases by friendly insects, bacteria, and organic pesticides available in nature.
Need for Organic Farming
At the time of independence, food grains were brought from abroad, and very little was produced from agriculture, but there was an unexpected increase in the population, shortage of food grains was felt. Then came the period of the Green Revolution, during this period between 1966-67 to 1990-91 there was an unprecedented increase in food production in India.
In order to achieve the goal of producing more food grains, fertilizers, pesticides and chemicals were used indiscriminately, due to which the toxicity of the land also increased. Many useful bacteria were destroyed from the soil and fertility was also reduced.
Today, due to the lack of balanced fertilizers, production has become stagnant, now the pioneers of the Green Revolution have also started accepting that many types of environmental problems and human and animal health problems have started arising due to the excessive use of these chemicals and there is a decrease in the fertility of the soil, due to which there is an imbalance of nutrients in the soil. Due to the decreasing soil fertility, it has become necessary to use more and more organic fertilizers to maintain the level of productivity.
Farmers are drowning in debt by buying expensive fertilizers and pesticides, deteriorating their economic condition. Due to the use of chemical foods by humans, physical disabilities and serious diseases like cancer have started to occur.
To solve this problem, the modern organic farming concept has emerged as a suitable alternative. Since the use of any kind of chemical inputs is prohibited in organic agriculture and all the resources required for crop production have to be mobilized by the farmers.
Therefore it is very necessary to train the farmers about the production of resources, their proper use, and organic farming management techniques. Some other reasons are as follows-
1. To bring about sustainability in agricultural production.
2. To maintain the organic quality of the soil.
3. Natural resources can be saved.
4. To prevent environmental pollution.
5. To protect human health.
6. To reduce the cost of production.
Sustainable farming is called sustainable farming without harming the environment and keeping the natural resources stored for the future, by making successful use of them, increasing the production of crops and meeting the various needs of human beings.
Organic farming is the main component of sustainable farming, whose main objective is to minimize the use of chemicals and use organic products in their place more and more so that the environmental balance is maintained and the fertility of the land increases. The main component of organic farming is organic manure, and biofertilizer, an excellent alternative to chemical fertilizers.
Main Components of Agriculture
Organic manure refers to organic matter, which on decomposition produces organic matter. It mainly consists of agricultural residues, animal excreta etc. In this, all the essential nutrients for crops are present in small amounts.
In this, all the nutrients in the soil, which the crops take for their growth, are recovered. In modern agriculture, intensive methods of farming are being adopted, due to which many crops in the same field continuously reduce the organic matter in the soil, which affects the structure and fertility of the soil.
The use of organic fertilizers is essential to keep it stable, as well as organic fertilizers have a good effect on soil structure, air, temperature, water holding capacity, bacterial numbers and their reactions, base exchange capacity and soil erosion prevention.
In our country, organic fertilizers have been used in traditional farming for a long time. Chief among these is compost manure, which is prepared in cities from garbage, other agricultural residues and cow dung. Nitrogen and phosphorus are found in more quantity in cow dung manure than in other compost. Almost all essential nutrients are found in organic fertilizers.
Manure of Cow Dung
Every farmer in India does animal husbandry along with farming, if farmers use their available agricultural residues and animal dung to make manure, then they can prepare high-quality manure. To make good manure, dig a pit of 1 meter wide, 1 meter deep or 5 to 10 meters in length as required and apply a thin layer of cow dung and animal urine on a layer of available agricultural residue in it.
Moisten it well and cover the pit properly and close it with soil and cow dung. In this way, after 3 turns in two months, good quality manure will be ready.
In this, earthworms convert dung and other residues into good quality organic manure in a short time. This type of organic manure increases the water-holding capacity of the soil. It is best for increasing the fertility of the soil, reducing the infestation of termites and providing essential nutrients to the plants in balanced quantity.
For organic farming, grow early growing pulse crops like Dhecha, Sunai, Cowpea, Guar etc. in the raw state after 50 to 60 days by ploughing the field and mixing it in the soil. In this way green manure will be helpful in improving soil, reducing soil erosion, nitrogen fixation, soil structure and increasing water holding capacity.
Dung Gas Slurry Manure
In organic farming, the slurry from the dung gas plant can be given directly to the field in the form of liquid dung manure. It benefits the crop soon, after going through a long process of mixing dung manure in the soil, its nutrients become available to the crop. Whereas by decomposing the slurry itself, all the nutrients present in it are soon available to the crop or plants. The collected slurry manure can be crushed and thrown directly into the garbage. From a two cubic meter gas plant, 10 tons of biogas slurry manure is obtained per year.
Nitrogen 1.5 to 2 per cent, Phosphorus 1.0 per cent and Potash 1.0 per cent are found in this. The thin slurry contains 2 per cent nitrogen in the form of ammonical nitrogen. Therefore, if it is given in drains along with irrigation water, its immediate effect can be clearly seen on the crop. Some part of nitrogen from the dry slurry gets dissipated in the air, 5 tonnes of slurry per hectare should be applied in unirrigated farming and 10 tonnes of slurry should be applied in irrigated agriculture.
Biofertilizers are prepared by mixing the living cells of microorganisms in a carrier. In this, Rhizobium culture is the most widely used biofertilizer. Its bacteria make bales in the roots of pulse crops and make atmospheric nitrogen available to the crop by stabilizing it in the soil. Each pulse crop has a different culture. These bacteria fix 50 kg to 135 kg of nitrogen per hectare of soil. 750 gm of Rhizobia is sufficient for 80 to 100 kg of seeds.
Azotobacter act as nitrogen fixation in food crops. Its use in food crops and vegetables gives 15 to 20 per cent more yield. Dissolving bacteria (PSB) consists of microscopic bacteria. With its use, the insoluble phosphor in the soil is converted into soluble phosphor and the yield increases by 15 to 25 per cent.
Benefits of Organic Farming:
1. By this not only the fertilizer power of the land is maintained but it also increases.
2. By this method the environment is free from pollution.
3. It requires less water. Organic farming conserves water.
4. The quality of the land is maintained and improved by this cultivation.
5. It is also of great importance for the farmer’s livestock and other living beings.
6. There is no need to destroy crop residues.
7. Having good quality produce.
8. Organic food is sold at an expensive price.
9. Auxiliary organisms of agriculture will not only be safe but they will also increase.
10. It costs less and profits are high.